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Pediatric Neurosurgery Surgeries

Professional Pediatric Neurosurgery Surgeries in Turkey

Hydrocephalus (Bleeding) Surgeries

Hydrocephalus is excessive fluid accumulation in and around the brain.  The incidence of congenital hydrocephalus in children is approximately 1 in 500 children.  The fluid known as cerebrospinal plaster (CSF) protects the brain and spinal cord.  The obstruction of this fluid at one or more points during the circulation and therefore the accumulation of fluid is called hedrocephaly.  This circulating fluid accumulates in the brain, causing it to grow into the skull.

The diagnosis of hydrocephalus is usually made before birth or in early infancy.  Rarely, it may be due to a genetic disorder.  The most common causes of hydrocephalus are hemorrhages due to premature birth, brain tumors, hemorrhages for the brain, head trauma, and meningitis.  Diagnosis is made by ultrasound during pregnancy.  In infancy, it is witnessed by ultrasound and MRI.  In infancy, it may show different symptoms in each child.

For example, overgrowth of the head, thinning of the scalp, vomiting, seizures, too little sleep of the baby, fever, double vision, etc.  The treatment method is even if the diagnosis is made in the mother's womb, delivery is expected and drug treatment is not possible.  Hedrocephaly is treated with surgical interventions.  The tumor or cyst causing the obstruction of the fluid is removed.

ETV is applied according to the condition of the blockage.  In cases where the obstruction is not cleared, a drainage system called “SHUNT” is placed on the baby's head.  This system, which is in the form of a long and elastic tube and has a part called a pump, is placed under the scalp, usually behind the ear.

The feature of this shunt is to direct the accumulated excess fluid to another place (heart, lung, or abdomen) where the baby's body can be absorbed.

Spinal Dysraphism Surgeries (Meningocele, Meningomyelocele)

It is a congenital anomaly of the spine and spinal cord.  The reason for the formation of this disease is the disorders that occur during the development of the child in the mother's womb.  Many diseases and infections of the mother and baby, bad habits such as alcohol and smoking can be the cause of these pathologies.

In this disease, especially urinary, bladder, and kidney problems are observed at high rates, so pediatric nephrology must be seen.  It consists of two rounds, closed and open.

Meningocele and Meningomyelocele

In this case, there is an opening in any part of the spinal cord.  While there is cerebrospinal membrane and fluid in the sac observed in meningocele, spinal cord tissue is also found in the sac in meningomyelocele.  Therefore, some of the patients are born with partial or complete paralysis.  Since the skin is open and the risk of infection and related death is high in cases of meningocele and meningomyelocele, surgery is recommended without waiting too long.

Since pathologies such as hydrocephalus and Chiari malformation (cerebellum prolapse) are observed at a high rate, these patients may need to be screened and, if necessary, intervened in these pathologies.  When these conditions are in the brain, they are called encephalocele and encephalomyelocele.

Dermal Sinus Tract

In this pathology, there is a pathological path, a tunnel, extending from the skin to the spinal cord.  With this connection, infection can be carried from the outside of the skin to the spinal cord.

Diastematomyelia (Split Spinal Cord Syndrome)

In split spinal cord syndrome, the spinal cord is divided into two by bands of bone or soft tissue.  This condition develops while the baby is in the womb.  Since the spine and spinal cord do not grow at the same rate after the baby is born, the bone or soft tissue curtain that divides this bisected spinal cord can cause the spinal cord to stretch and become damaged over time.  It is often seen with tense filum terminale pathology.

Tethered Cord (Tethered Spinal Cord-Filum Terminale)

The taut spinal cord, filum terminale, a soft tissue band that emerges from the lowest end of the spinal cord and connects the spinal cord to the bottom of the spinal canal in the sacrum, becomes thicker than it normally should and stretches the spinal cord.

Although normally the spinal cord should end at the level of the first lumbar vertebra (L1), in this case the spinal cord ends lower.  As a result of stretching of the spinal cord, poor blood supply and lack of oxygen, paralysis, urinary and stool disorders can be seen.

Symptoms: Swelling in the back and waist and sac traceability are usually observed with meningocele and meningomyelocele. Hair growth on the back, moles and spotting, paralysis in the legs, gait disorder are diagnosed with MRI, CT and some pathology tests. 

Treatment is usually surgery. In cases of meningocele and meningomyelocele, the skin and sac should be repaired with surgical treatment.

Craniosynostosis (Skull Premature Closing Shape Disorders) Surgeries

Craniosynostosis is the premature closure of one or more bones in the skull where they join. It is a condition that requires surgical intervention.  Its varieties are sagittal, coronal, metopic, and lambdoid.

It is in the field of pediatric neurosurgery. Early diagnosis is vital. In this surgery, starband orthotic helmets are generally used. It is preferred to correct the deformation caused by fusion after the shooters opened for surgery.

This surgery usually takes 45 minutes. Allowing him to be discharged the next day. It is performed using the endoscopic craniectomy technique.  The cause of this disease is often unknown. In some cases, it is based on genetic disorders. The most common type is non-syndromic craniosynostosis.

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